Most common Gynecological problems and preventions

Almost every women suffers from gynecological disease once in her lifetime. Many gynecological disease recur several times and leave serious complications affecting reproductive health. They can even cause women infertility. Understanding the common gynecological diseases help women be more proactive in preventing and minimizing adverse consequences.

Most common Gynecological problems and preventions


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1. What is Gynecological diseases?

Gynecological diseases is a set of pathologies that affect the female reproductive organs including:

- External genitalia: clitoris, labia, vulva, vagina

- Internal genitalia: cervix, uterus, ovaries, Fallopian tubes.

Gynecological diseases directly affect women’s health, especially reproductive health, with disorders such as Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID), cyst, fibroid , cancer, etc.

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Gynecological diseases affect the female reproductive organs

2. Common causes of gynecological diseases:

There are many causes of gynecological inflammation. Most of them is caused by stress or lifestyle habits of women. Common causes of gynecological diseases are listed below:

2.1. Unprotected intercourse:

Women are at greater risk of gynecological infection when having unprotected intercourse with the partner who has been exposed male genital infection. In addition, aggressive and improper sex engaging may cause feminine area to be scratched, creating favorable conditions for bacteria to promote gynecological diseases.

Unprotected sexually transmitted viruses include chlamydia, Trichomonias , gonorrhea, coccobacillus, spirochaete, anaerobic bacteria, genital herpes virus, fungi, etc. These bacteria, when enter the uterus, may result microbial imbalance (dysbiosis) and impaired genital functions.

2.2. Abortion:

Causes of gynecological inflammation may include abortion procedures which is performed by inexperience doctor; in unreliable medical centers or in operating room which is not properly sterilized. Improper feminine care after abortion also facilitate harmful bacteria to develop inflammation. 

According to experts, after the abortion, the women reproductive organs are very sensitive. Having sex early after an abortion makes vagina and uterus more vulnerable and more likely to develop gynecological diseases.

2.3. Rest deficiency, insufficient diet and stress:

Stress and anxiety causing hormonal imbalance which severely affect women’s physical health such as menstrual cycle disorders, delayed menstrual cycle, changes in the microbiological environment and vagina’s pH which facilitate the development of gynecological diseases.

Anxiety and stress increase risk of gynecological diseases.

In addition, eating too much greasy dishes, spicy foods or using cigarettes, coffee, alcohol, etc. also increases the risk of gynecological infections.

2.4. Improper feminine hygiene routines:

The vagina is a humid environment in which is ideal for the growth of bacteria and pathogenic fungus. Therefore, improper feminine hygiene routines could result gynecological diseases.

In addition, gynecological diseases could also be cultivated by using tight underpants, menopause, health deterioration, pregnant or allergic to certain cleansers.

3. List of common gynecological problems:




Pain during intercourse

Feeling painful during intercourse, may include shortness of breath.

  • Vaginismus: Tightness in the vagina muscles, caused by the fear of vulnerability.
  • Injured cervical: Penis touches the cervix, causes pain or infection.
  • Fibroid  
  • Endometriosis 
  • Ovarian cysts
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
  • Ectopic pregnancy 
  • Menopause
  • Early intercourse after giving birth or operation.
  • STDs
  • Vulvodynia.

Pelvic pain

Pains appear in abdomen and upper legs.

  • Ectopic pregnancy
  • Miscarriage
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
  • Ovulation
  • Period cramps
  • Fibroid
  • Ovarian cysts
  • Endometriosis
  • Uterine cancer
  • Cervical cancer

Pelvic disorders may include:

  • Bowel disorders: Constipation, diarrhea and bloating.
  • Urethritis 
  • Urinary incontinence
  • Fibroid
  • Uterine prolapse

Pelvic disorders

STDs (Sexually transmitted infections)

  • Vaginal discharge with unusual odor
  • Itching, burning, soreness in the vagina area.
  • Rashes, blisters, sores, lumps, pustules, warts on or around the genitals, anus, or mouth.
  • Uncomfortable or painful when urinating.
  • Swollen lymph in the groin
  • Pain in groin or abdomen
  • Unusual vagina bleeding
  • Swollen vagina
  • Unusual losing weight, night sweats
  • Flu-like symptoms (aches, pains and fever)
  • Pain during intercourse
  • Unprotected intercourse
  • Bacteria exposed by sharing towel or underwear.


Itching, soreness or pain in the vulva

  • Neurological injury or irritation.
  • Abnormal reactions in vulva cells with infection or trauma.
  • Genetic factors make the vagina less responsive to chronic inflammation.
  • Yeast infections
  • Vaginal cramps
  • Stimulant allergy and other allergies
  • Hormonal changes
  • History of sexual abuse
  • Regularly use antibiotics


  • Vaginal discharge with unusual odor
  • Itching, burning, soreness in the vagina area
  • Burning when urinating
  • Pain during intercourse
  • Yeast infection or vaginitis
  • Unhealthy sex
  • Stimulant allergy and other allergies


  • Increasing vaginal discharge
  • Longer menstrual cycles and bleeding more than usual
  • Abdominal pain
  • Urinary retention 
  • Menorrhagia
  • Tired and sore
  • Tumor in the lower abdomen

There have no specific causes but some risk factors include:

  • Obesity
  • Precocious puberty
  • Having sex at an early age

Ovarian cysts

  • Similar to other gynecological disease: Increasing vaginal discharge, menorrhagia, urinary retention, abdominal pain
  • Excess of HCG level
  • Immature ovarian follicles


  • Vaginal secretions with unpleasant odor or unusual color
  • Burning sensation during urination 
  • Difficult to have orgasm when having sex
  • Having sex with multiple partners or aggressive sex
  • Improper feminine cleansing
  • Allergy to washes
  • Overusing of oral contraceptives 

Cervical ectropion 

  • Chunky vaginal discharge and having unpleasant odor.
  • Soreness in vulva area and getting worse while walking.
  • Feeling lump when examining labia area.
  • Multiple abortion causing injured follicles and endometrium
  • Estrogen overdosed from oral contraceptives
  • Aggressive sex


  • Irregular menstruation
  • Yellowish vaginal discharge with unpleasant odor
  • Frequent and urgent need to urinate, or a burning sensation during urination
  • Might accompanied fever, dizziness, nausea
  • Improper hygiene habits
  • Unprotected sex


  • Unusual vaginal discharge with pus, blood or being thicker
  • Abdominal pain

Unhealthy lifestyle

Ovarian inflammation 

  • Increasing vaginal discharge
  • Abdominal severe pain
  • High fever
  • Swollen anus
  • Pain on lower chest or lower right chest.


  • Improper hygiene habits
  • Inflammation after abortion

4. Prevention

Gynecological diseases are caused by lifestyle. Therefore, the best way to prevent them is changing daily routines of self-care such as:

4.1. Having safe sex:

Healthy sex would prevent the recurrence of gynecological diseases which is sexually transmitted. Condoms should be used in every intercourse for protecting women from unintended pregnancy and STDs. You and your partners should properly cleanse genital parts before intercourse.

Avoiding multiple-partners sex and aggressive intercourse would also help preventing gynecological diseases.

4.2. Following healthy diet, proper rest and balanced life:

Anxiety caused by modern life also leads to the increasing of gynecological diseases’ risks. Therefore, the healthy lifestyle with balanced diet, enough rest and without stress would effectively prevent gynecological disorders. You can strengthen your resistance by:

- Adequate nutrition with fiber and vitamin C.

- Regular exercising

- Avoiding stress

- Sleeping early, avoiding staying up late

Exercise regularly strengthen immune system and resistance of body.




4.3.  Maintain proper feminine hygiene:

Understanding your feminine part keeps gynecological diseases stay away. Some tips are listed below to maintain proper hygiene for her:

- Take shower and change underwear regularly (especially during menstruation). Clean genital part every day with warm and clean water.

- Keep genital dry, avoid wearing tight underwear.

- Chang sanitary napkins every 4 hours during menstruation.

- Do not use strong washes to cleanse genital, use trusted feminine washes instead.

- Do not deeply cleanse inside vagina.

- Do not share towels, underwear.

4.4. Taking periodic gynecological examination:

Subjectivity and hesitance inhibit women from being properly examined and counselled. Since the disease progress, curing cost more efforts and expenses. Taking periodic gynecological screening would probably help eliminate the discomfort of gynecological diseases.

Who should take periodic gynecological examination?

Women who is above 21 years old or already have intercourse.

Period: at least once every 6 months

CarePlus International Clinic operated by CityClinic Vietnam Ltd. provides extensive diagnostic and therapeutic services for gynecologic and obstetric conditions such as:

  • Gynecological disease.
  • Pathology of menstruation and menopause.
  • Obstetric.
  • Family planning counseling.
  • Cancer screening.

For more information about Gynecology & Obstetrics Services, please follow the link HERE

We ensure that our patients will receive personalized and unique care in a friendly and professional environment.

About common gynecological diseases and prevention, please connect our website:, Fanpage: CarePlus Clinic Vietnam or Free Hotline: 1800 6116.

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